Joe chats with Adam Balinski, founder of Crushendo, a test prep program focused on maximizing human memory. Auditory courses with a strong emphasis on tried and true memory hacks like location association and mnemonic devices, all worked into short, repeatable episodes you can listen to while going about your day.
Special thanks to Logikcull and Crushendo, for sponsoring this episode.
Mentioned in This Episode
Founded in 2017 by Adam Balinski, a former TV reporter and instructional designer who graduated summa cum laude from BYU Law, Crushendo helps law students crush final exams, the MPRE, and the bar exam. With hundreds of mnemonics and illustrations, thousands of official NCBE practice questions, affordable pricing, lifetime access, whiteboard videos, plus audio outlines and audio flashcards, Crushendo is revolutionizing legal education. Unlike some competitors who require expensive deposits, Crushendo offers the opposite—a 30-day, no-questions-asked, money-back guarantee. 98% stick around. The 5-star reviews explain why.
Above the Law – Thinking Like a Lawyer
Crushing It On Test Prep
Intro: Welcome to Thinking Like a Lawyer with your hosts, Elie Mystal and Joe Patrice, talking about legal news and pop culture, all while thinking like a lawyer. Here on Legal Talk Network.
Joe Patrice: Hello, welcome to another edition of Thinking Like a Lawyer. I am Joe Patrice from Above the Law. It’s a very—it’s a sparse day here in the office. I am the only person still sitting here. Everyone else has decided to be at home, but the show must as always go on, and with that, I figure this is as good a time as any to move on with the show.
So, I am welcoming in my guest. I have Adam Balinski from Crushendo. Welcome to the show.
Adam Balinski: Thank you so much, Joe. It’s great to be here with you.
Joe Patrice: Yeah, no, I am glad that you are able to join us today too. I mean, as I said, things are pretty sparse over here.
Adam Balinski: Oh, that’s exactly how they are here in Utah too. It’s quite interesting. So, though I run Crushendo, I also work for a nearby law school, BYU Law School, and we are over there trying to figure out what to do with all our events and everything that’s going on, it’s quite interesting. So, interesting to see how things play out.
Joe Patrice: Yeah, no, I don’t know where you are. Obviously here at Above the Law we have been covering [how] law schools have been going online, [and how] law schools have been saying, “Go off on spring break and we don’t know when we are calling you back.” It’s just been kind of all over the place. So, I don’t envy that job.
Adam Balinski: Which for students I have got to imagine is really nice. It’s like all right sweet, online classes, that sounds fun.
Joe Patrice: Yeah. Well, the first ones were somewhat ridiculous because the original wave of stuff we heard was people saying, you know, “We are going to really get serious about hunkering down. All right, well, spring break, we will talk about this when you get back.” And I was like, well, that kind of defeats the purpose of that hunkering down, right? If you are going to send everyone out and then have them come back?
Adam Balinski: Yeah, exactly.
Joe Patrice: So, it is interesting, and we are covering whenever we hear of law firms or law schools closing. We are trying to stay on top of it.
Anyway, so before we get into a more detailed discussion about what you do, I am going to take this minute to talk about our sponsors—including you.
But first, today’s episode is brought to you by your beehive, who is very mad at you and all because you are still at the office slogging through an endless doc review project. Make better decisions, keep your pet, and work smarter with Logikcull, e-discovery software that gets you started in minutes. Don’t let frustrating, outdated e-discovery sting you. Create your free account today at logikcull.com/atl. That’s logikcull.com/atl.
And, also, Crushendo. Crushendo helps law students crush finals, the MPRE, and the bar. With hundreds of mnemonics and illustrations, thousands of official NCBE practice questions, affordable pricing, lifetime access, whiteboard videos, plus audio outlines and audio flashcards, Crushendo is revolutionizing legal education. Unlike some competitors who require expensive deposits, Crushendo offers the opposite: a 30-day, no-questions-asked, money-back guarantee. 98% stick around. The five-star reviews explain why you should try Crushendo.
So, with that, a more perfect lead-in you couldn’t have, let’s talk about Crushendo.
So, Adam, I guess off the top—that ad gave us some background—but off the top, what does Crushendo do, and what does it offer for students?
Adam Balinski: Yeah. So Crushendo offers educational study aids in particular for law school, the MPRE, the bar exam; we are looking to expand into some other areas as well, but that’s what we have [a] curriculum for at this time. And our wheelhouse, our jam, is audio, all things audio. So, audio outlines, audio flashcards, we have optional classical background music that goes with those materials, and then we try to soup up those materials to be as engaging and as memorable as possible by infusing them with mnemonics and making them as concise as possible, as well.
And so we use mnemonics that are [as] simple as acronyms or phrase-based mnemonics, and I think most people are familiar with those kinds of mnemonics. And then we use other kinds of memory hacks, like memory palaces or the method of loci, and those are where you visualize places and things that symbolize key concepts that create these awesome memory hooks in your brain. And your spatial memory has been shown to be incredibly powerful, and so we try to leverage that.
So, we are really trying to just innovate the way legal education is done in particular when it comes to memorization, and leveraging that audio so you can get out of the library, you can get out to the gym, you can go hiking, you can do whatever, clean your house while you are studying, so you can use your time as effectively as possible.
Joe Patrice: You mentioned the spatial memory thing, and I am just going to throw in my personal hook on this. I remember I had a teacher in high school who was into that, and it was a psych class. So, he was talking about just kind of general memories and made us all go through that process of learning how to spatially remember things, like going through your house and tying random words to different objects in an imaginary house. And it was striking how much more you can remember when you try to tie things spatially. I was always blown away by that.
Adam Balinski: And it’s fun. I mean, it’s really fun. And it’s interesting you gave that house example because we use houses a lot. People are familiar with houses. And, so, for example, with our constitutional law outlines, we approach the different levels of protection for various constitutional rights as three different floors in a house.
And so, you walk in. [On the] first floor, you see people and things, actions that symbolize rights protected by rational basis. And you go up the stairs, and you get the intermediate review rights. And you go up the stairs again, and you get the strict scrutiny protected rights. And then in the closet, you have got your privacy-related rights.
And so, you are walking through these houses just kind of like what your teacher did with you back in the day, yeah.
Joe Patrice: It’s weird how few educational outlets really get into the hacking of—the memory-hack game. I remember when I was taking bar prep years and years and years ago, the different professors have their own different styles, and I remember there were always a couple who really engaged in the repetition, using things that were memorable. And those were always the subject matters that I felt the most confident about coming out of, and there was no like systematized “make everyone else teach that way.”
And so, when I first encountered Crushendo, my first take-away was, oh, like actually applying a plan to this and making sure that it’s material and content that people will be able to remember.
Adam Balinski: Well, in other programs, you can get mnemonics here and there based on the professor that is presenting the content, but the standard of mnemonics, the quality of mnemonics, we believe, are not up to their full potential. And so, what’s really nice is if you can create a mnemonic that’s not just—like the worst kind of mnemonic is a random string of letters. It’s hard to keep that straight, but it’s better than nothing.
And then if you have that random string of letters create a word, that’s a step up. If you have that random string of letters create a word that is related to the underlying concept, then you are getting closer.
And so we have gone through great effort to craft our mnemonics, and we are very strategic about whether or not we are going to use an acronym-based, a phrase-based or a memory-palace-based mnemonic for a given issue. And sometimes we don’t use mnemonics above and beyond additional repetition of an item because it’s simple enough that you can get away with that.
So, yeah, we are trying to be strategic about when, where, how to use mnemonics, and be consistent in our mnemonic usage and how we color and frame those mnemonics.
Joe Patrice: Yeah, it really is valuable if you can have something that holds you, especially with concepts that are—I mean law is—obviously you are going in other fields too, but I think law is so order-of-operations-based a lot; oh, I see this problem, what is the test I apply? I go through this and that and the other. Like, it screams for this kind of approach, and yet you are doing—you are the ones out there who are really taking the time to make sure that you tailor something to maximize that.
Adam Balinski: And one of the things we are doing is—and it’s actually saved us quite a bit of money—and that is we create our mnemonics and our curriculum in-house within Crushendo, and then we hire professors who are experts in the various subject areas to vet our content. So, we are not having professors deliver things directly, which can be both expensive [and] can also create an inconsistency in presentation style.
So, we control the uniformity, the consistency, the various tools, and we are striving our best always, always to improve the pedagogy, but we are relying still on subject matter experts to make sure we don’t get too creative. But that’s saved us some money.
And sometimes people will ask, like, “How is Crushendo so affordable in terms of bar prep courses?” I mean it’s still expensive, it’s several hundred dollars, but you have got other courses in the thousands, right? So people think—initially they go “Whoa, it can’t be that good, right? The quality can’t be there.” But some of the things we have done to kind of innovate how our overhead is structured have helped us keep our costs down.
Joe Patrice: Yeah. And well, I always felt like, with issues, especially stuff like bar prep, there is no excuse for not taking all the options if available to you. I was lucky enough to be going to a big firm where they were willing to pay for a bar prep class, but there was another, less expensive one that was out there and I said “Well, I will take that too just in case, like just in case the professor who teaches one thing is a little bit better.” It was a shorter, less expensive one, and it wasn’t as good. But the point is that it wasn’t because it was less expensive, I don’t think. That was just a quirk of that one.
Adam Balinski: Yeah, we see plenty of people that do that. I think it’s just the risk-averse belt and suspenders approach that we as attorney-minded people tend to take. And so that is a hurdle that we face as a company, right? How do you get people to take a little bit of a risk and try something new and maybe study in a slightly different way than they are used to at the end of their educational journey? I mean, we are talking the biggest exam of their lives is right there and we are asking them to look at it maybe a little bit different way. And that’s why we give them that 30-day, no money back; I mean—no money back, that would be nice for us—but no-questions-asked, money-back guarantee. And thankfully not a lot of people take us up on that, so we are able to offer that, and we intend to keep offering that.
We get a lot of people that use our program and other programs, and that’s nice because then we get some feedback [like], “Oh, it would be cool if you had this kind of tool,” or, “Oh, this is really working, like this part is really neat.” And so we are constantly improving the product.
Joe Patrice: Yeah, that’s great. So, let’s talk about—how did you come up with the name Crushendo?
Adam Balinski: That’s a great question. So, the company used to be called CrammerTones, and I thought that was fun. And this was back when it was just me, and I am not a marketer by training. I used to be a TV reporter, so communication is fun for me, teaching is fun for me; I used to teach Swedish at the university level before law school, and then I was a corporate trainer. So, like, education is all cool, but the marketing thing is a little bit of a different language and a different domain.
And so, I thought CrammerTones because you are cramming and there are tones and cool. But I read this book called Buyology, and it talked a lot about the emotional appeal of a brand. And I thought, well, cramming. That’s an anxiety-inducing, kind of a negative thing, right? Like, people don’t associate that with positive feelings. And so, I thought, well, we have got to come up with something a little bit more positive than that.
What can communicate kind of this increase of energy, this important phase of time where you are studying very intensely and more intensely and then there is kind of this climax with an exam, where all cylinders are firing? And the idea of a crescendo came to mind, but of course, if you spell Crushendo the normal way, there is, like, a million companies like that [so] you don’t have as much trademark protection. And so, we kind of looked at what’s the lay of the land in terms of trademark registrations, and we found that we could get Crushendo with a “u,” like you are crushing it, which was just kind of a convenience.
And we are grateful that it plays that way, but the musical Crushendo and then with our optional classical background music, it’s just another layer where it’s kind of cool and seems to work out. So, you are going to crush it, use Crushendo. You are going to Crushendo; it’s a positive, exciting climax, it’s not this negative anxiety-inducing climax. It’s what you experience in music. So, we had fun with that.
Joe Patrice: Yeah, I saw it as—I was like, well, this is—I didn’t know what exactly it would be because I was like, well, there is classical music involved so maybe it’s a crescendo thing. And then I was like, but they are talking about crushing it, so maybe it came from that. And it turns out that it was just everything kind of coming together.
Adam Balinski: Exactly. And then you have got the additional layer of, like, the crush and the end, so [it’s] like you are crushing the end of your educational journey. You are crushing exams; you are crushing finals; you are crushing the bar.
Joe Patrice: Wow, yeah. And speaking of crushing, another thing about the history of the company that I saw was, on the website, there is a lot of talk about baseball, home runs, and stuff.
Adam Balinski: Yeah, that’s one of my obsessions.
Joe Patrice: Yeah. So, it says that you keep balls with you in your trunk at all times. What’s going on here?
Adam Balinski: That’s true. Yeah, they are in my car right now. So, I have coached a variety of teams—just little league youth sports—, and I just love baseball. And so, to get a release, I mean, some people go to the driving range, and I do that too, but I will also just drive to a baseball field and I will just soft toss to myself, just throw a couple up and hit it, and just do my own little home run derby.
So I’ve got about 60 balls in the back of my car, and I just bought a new bat a few weeks ago that I’ve had some fun testing out. And that has made some really cool memorable experiences because when I was studying for the bar and using kind of my hack job, sloppy embryo, Crushendo outlines, I was at the park for a lot of that, hitting baseballs. And then in between this was like totally psycho, right, like who would do this. But during the actual administration of the bar exam, during that lunch period, we had about—I think we had about an hour for lunch and it only takes like 10 minutes, 15 minutes to scarf down a lunch. And there just happened to be a baseball field right there. And so I walked over to that baseball field, and I took some good swings and had some good pops, and I just walked back into the second portion of the MBE smiling.
Joe Patrice: Yeah.
Adam Balinski: It was just fun, so stuff like that. The bar exam, just as much as anything else, it’s this test of managing your anxiety and staying sane and positive. And so, I felt that audio is a fast way to do that, and I recognize that not everybody is an auditory learner and we’re trying to create products that are good enough for just people that have to live in the text and just look at pictures and things like that. But if you can do audio, I mean, use it as much as you can because you’re going to be getting your blood pumping if you’re doing something physical, [and] that engages your brain in a bunch of different ways and can make—just operate more at your capacity, at your potential. And so, if you’re just sitting sedentary in a library, looking at a screen or looking at your book all day long, I mean, you’re going to be a little bit more miserable, or a lot more miserable. And you’re not going to get the benefits of the additional oxygen and getting your heart rate up and the endorphins and things that can come by doing something physical. But that’s mostly mindless so that you can still lend your ear and your brain to the audio.
Joe Patrice: Yeah, I also do really well with auditory learning, but I’ll say it’s partially the auditory stuff, but also it’s how short and repeatable a lot of these materials are. Because I’m pretty good with auditory, but the thing that allows me, to this day, to quote episodes of The Simpsons—that are 30 years old at this point—is that I was able to watch them six or seven times. And that’s something that—having a four-hour course on commercial paper is not something you can do. But having these shorter, more streamlined, very efficient, repetitive content gives you that edge to be able to do it again.
Adam Balinski: I love The Simpsons example, that’s hilarious you brought that up. One of my best friends growing up could do the same thing, and it was hilarious. He’d mute the TV and he’d just go off, and it was fun to see, but you’re right. So, the repetition is key, and a lot of the presentations of the content that you need to know for the bar exam are lengthy, long-winded, we’re talking several hours per subject on the shorter end. And we really try to get everything to an hour or less for any particular subject.
So, evidence law in an hour or less, that’s what we’re shooting for. And part of the reason I’m so passionate about brevity is because of my background in TV reporting where you’re constantly trying to take tons of content and distill it into one-and-a-half minutes, maybe a three-minute news spot. And so, I was able to get practice over the years with TV reporting of just distilling, condensing, condensing, and being very careful with how you word things. I mean, you don’t want to put any words in that you don’t need to put in. And so, yeah, we cut out a lot of words, and we’re strategic about the types of words we use. We actually have kind of a book of rules in what we can say and what we can’t say because of, one, how positive that type of word is, and we are full believers in positivity, and then, two, how concise and how simple and understandable that type of word is.
So, we have certain words that are kind of on our good list, and then we have words that are on our naughty list that we avoid, and then there [are] certain grammatical things as well that we strive to avoid, and others that we strive to run with. And some simple ones are things [like] just use direct voice, active voice, right, you don’t want to use passive voice. And so, that’s just one example there in terms of grammatical conventions we strive for. And sometimes, you have to use passive voice for clarity, and it can be awkward to use active. But by and large, you can get away with active voice, and it saves you time.
Joe Patrice: Oh yeah, and that’s—I will say—and I don’t know as though anybody who’s taking your course is thinking of it this way, but my pitch will be given that explanation.
After you have taken the bar, you—and if you start getting into practice and you start trying to write things, whether they are briefs or memos or just workups of terms and a document, maybe re-listen to these and start trying to think: do I sound like this? Because now I can’t get over how, as a practicing attorney, it was frustrating when people thought that being an attorney was a license to write 200 pages when 10 would do.
Adam Balinski: Yeah.
Joe Patrice: And understanding active voice, understanding some words aren’t necessary, is hugely important. And the more people that are exposed to what good, concise writing is, the better off this profession would get.
I actually had a—we had a case where the powers that be, and there were a lot of co-defendants, so we were filing one brief. And they put together a 125-page brief. [For] my client’s section of it, we put together three paragraphs. Everybody else, though, demanded 20, 30 pages each. It was obviously kicked out by the judge who was furious that we did that and told us, “The whole thing needs to be within my 20-page limit.” And I was like, well, this is why I wrote three paragraphs. But it is a lesson that people need to learn, and I’m glad that you are kind of showing students at the bar exam stage that good writing doesn’t necessarily require being long-winded.
Adam Balinski: Yeah, and I think what’s hard—something we strive to overcome—is, within the law school context, typically verbosity can be rewarded on finals in particular. There has actually been research about the word count on your final exam [and how it] is going to impact your grade by X amount. It doesn’t necessarily have to, but yeah, I mean, there are ways you can be concise, to the point, and direct. And I found over my own academic career in law school that, as things went on, my answers—two final exams actually got shorter and shorter and shorter, and my GPA went up. My very best semester was my last semester before I graduated, and I actually got done [my exams] early, which was very interesting for me. And yeah, I mean, say what you need to say, say it clearly, and move on.
Joe Patrice: Yeah.
Adam Balinski: And so, it just showcases another type of competence if you can do that, and it saves so much time.
Well, actually, in terms of the creation process, sometimes it can be harder to write concisely. But the more you practice that, the faster you get at writing concisely because you don’t think about active voice anymore, it’s just your go-to. You don’t think about the types of prepositional phrases that can bog you down in your writing; you just write shorter sentences.
Joe Patrice: Yeah—no, that’s the—I believe it’s Mark Twain, but that could also just be because he’s eminently quotable, but I believe it’s Twain who wrote in his correspondence—had some letter where he said, “I apologize for the long letter, I didn’t have enough time to write a short one because the editing process does take time.”
But, I feel like, with those exams, you’re right. There’s kind of a perverse reward system of people using a lot of words, and it’s not that having a lot of words makes it better, it’s that, just, statistically you might stumble upon a thing that they’ll give you a point for the longer you go. But that doesn’t make it better, and that doesn’t mean that a well-written short one that has everything in it wouldn’t get the same grade. But if you’re struggling, you just keep going, and maybe you’ll hit the word that the TA’s Guide says is worth one point.
Adam Balinski: Yeah, well, certainly in your legal writing classes, I think, across the board, schools are doing a lot better in encouraging the type of writing that we’re trying to use with Crushendo. I got to TA for a great professor who was wonderful in getting us to be to the point, understandable, concise, and so it was fun working for that professor, and that helped to further kind of craft my mindset to my outlook at writing generally. And that certainly had ripple effects and poured into Crushendo. And so, we really try to give every word significant thought.
There [are] benefits creating your own outlines, right, because you learn through the creation process, it’s memorable to create. But with a commercial product, there [are] some benefits in that we have more time than you do to think through each and every word and to double-check accuracy and things like that. And so, there’s pros and cons with both, and if you can use a little bit of both, you’re going to be in the best spot.
Joe Patrice: Yeah, well you said—obviously this podcast is more directed towards lawyers—but we do have people who have [a] general interest in listening, we also have a pretty robust audience of undergrads who are considering law, but that means that [they] are also not necessarily going [into] law.
So, with that said, you mentioned that your laws—you are home-based, but you’re looking into other fields. What other fields is Crushendo looking to move toward to help out those professions?
Adam Balinski: So, some of the fields we’ve been public about, and I’ll be public about them here, and others we’re kind of just toying with behind the scenes—
Joe Patrice: Of course.
Adam Balinski: Yeah, just in terms of competitors and things. But one that we have announced that we’re looking into and working on is the CPA exam and then also the nurse licensing exam.
Joe Patrice: Oh, yeah.
Adam Balinski: Both of those are very memory-intensive, and that’s kind of our specialty, right? Getting people to memorize things quickly and efficiently and with freedom; that’s what we really focus on.
So, exams like the LSAT, those are more processing-rich, test-strategy-rich, reading-comprehension-and-logical-reasoning-rich. They’re not so much about memorizing lots of material. And so, I don’t foresee LSAT prep coming out of Crushendo in the near future. But stuff like the CPA where the passage rates aren’t particularly high, so the market has a little bit of an opening that way in how people are feeling about the exam. There’s definitely some anxiety there, and so there’s some room for experimentation. And then the NCLEX exam is just very, very memory rich.
And so, we actually had a group of interns that we had devote an entire semester to just researching which exams to go to next and why, looking at a variety of factors like how big is a market, how many students are taking the exam, how much did they spend on test prep, and how does the competition stack up against Crushendo and what we’re doing. And they, at the very top of the list, they had the CPA, and next was NCLEX, and then there are about a few dozen more exams that we looked at that are further down that list that—some of them will be worth engaging in down the road. But we’ve been really encouraged by how things have gone with our law prep, and our growth over time has been really encouraging, and the feedback we’ve gotten—it’s been a tremendous blessing and humbling, and I’ve been really grateful for everybody that’s helped out along the way.
Something that I always feel like I have to stress in any interview that I have is just how much—like if you’re starting a company—I imagine there might be some entrepreneurial folks listening to this. If you’re going to start a company or if you’ve already started a company, the success of that company is not going to be entirely because of you, and if it fails, it’s not going to be entirely because of you, either. There are so many things beyond your control, and there [are] so many things that can work out to your benefit. And so, no matter where you’re at, I don’t think you should ever get a big head, and I don’t think you should ever punish yourself if something doesn’t go exactly how you planned.
And one example I give with Crushendo that just really punctuates this point is early on there was a law student at the University of San Diego who tested our beta MPRE product. And, at the time, it was just me, that’s all Crushendo was. I was just creating an experimental product, and he—I didn’t know this guy, I didn’t ask him to do this, but after he took the MPRE he blogged about it on LinkedIn, and he had just a really positive experience. And then, when he got his score back, he blogged again about it.
And that kind of social proof is invaluable to a really young company. It’s part of what sparked conversations with competing investors that wanted in on Crushendo that ultimately provided the capital, the financial fuel to get Crushendo up and going in a more legitimate way.
And so, I feel incredibly indebted to this—the student I’ve never met, and I couldn’t force that. I mean, obviously, I’m grateful that they had a good experience and our product helped foster that. But people don’t have to talk about their good experiences, and people can focus on the little things that are imperfect as you’re learning and building a company.
So, the Crushendo products we had then were nowhere near as good as the Crushendo products we have now, but yet, he chose to see the good and to see the potential and to blog about it. And I’m just like, “Oh, thank you so much.” And so, I try to remember that and keep myself grounded as things have continued to grow and just say, look, this company is a combination of a million things, and I’m just one little piece. And I just try to tell myself don’t get a big head, don’t get a big head.
Joe Patrice: Yeah. Okay, you could say, “Don’t have a big head.” I’m going to say that you are justified in having a big head. So that’s the difference between my role and your role here.
Adam Balinski: [laughs] Well, what would that accomplish?
Joe Patrice: Right, fair enough. Well, all right. It looks like we’re coming down to the end of our time together, but thanks for joining me today. This was great. It’s Adam Balinski from Crushendo. So, everybody, check them out.
Adam Balinski: Please do. Thank you, Joe, I appreciate it.
Joe Patrice: Yeah. Well, so—and thank you all for listening. If you are already subscribed to the show, that’s great. You should do that. That way, it will show up in your device of choice whenever it comes out. You should be giving it reviews, not just the stars. Write something, that always helps. You can be that San Diego student for us.
Adam Balinski: I’d be forever indebted, so—I’m so grateful.
Joe Patrice: So, you should be reading Above the Law, you should be following @JosephPatrice on Twitter, you should be listening to the other Legal Talk Network family of shows. You should be listening to “The Jabot,” which is Kathryn Rubino’s show, and with all of that said, thank you—
Adam Balinski: That’s a lot of “shoulds,” Joe [laughs].
Joe Patrice: I know [laughs].
Adam Balinski: Shoulding all over people [laughs].
Joe Patrice: This is how the end of the show blurb goes all the time, and I don’t have it written out, I just have to kind of memory-wise go through everything that we need to do. But there are two more shoulds that I still have, which is we should thank our sponsors, as always, Logikcull, and for this episode, in particular, thank you to Crushendo. That is if you haven’t been listening to the show: Crushendo helps you crush finals, the MPRE, and bar prep with audio outlines and flashcards loaded with memory hacks. So, check out crushendo.com to learn more, and if you are in the fields of CPA and nursing, maybe you will be there too in the near future.
So, thank you, everybody, and we will check in with you again next week.